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Photo Credit: Terry Hartley
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin)
OTHER NAMES: Worm-eater,
DESCRIPTION: Sparrow-sized (13-14 cm [5-5.5 in.]), with distinctive broad black stripes on a buff-colored head. Remaining upperparts brownish olive, and underparts dark to pale buff. Legs flesh-colored, and robust bill brownish black above and horn to pink below. Sexes similar. Song a simple high-pitched trill, che-e-e-e-e-e-e, lasting about two seconds; sharp, strident chip call also given. No recognized subspecies (Terres 1980, Hanners and Patton 1998).
DISTRIBUTION: Breeding distribution discontinuous from northeastern
HABITAT: Breeds in large tracts of deciduous and mixed forest, particularly those with moderate to steep slopes and patches of dense understory shrubs, although breeding populations also occur in low-elevation coastal forests (Hanners and Patton 1998). In migration, occurs in various forest, woodland, scrub, and thicket habitats. In winter, inhabits shrub and subcanopy layers of a variety of forest types (Patton et al. 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY: Returns to breeding grounds in April and May. Males establish territories and monogamous pair bonds formed soon thereafter. Female builds well-concealed nest on ground, usually on a hillside or bank. Nest of dead leaves constructed, with lining often consisting of hair-like moss setae and mammal hair. Clutch consists of four to six whitish eggs, lightly speckled with brown. Although single-brooded, replacement clutches produced if earlier nest attempts fail. Female incubates eggs for 12-13 days; young leave nest nine to 10 days post-hatching. Both parents feed young, which become independent about three weeks post-fledging. Subjected to brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbird (Hanners and Patton 1998). Noted for habit of probing suspended dead leaves for food. Diet consists mostly of caterpillars, other insects, spiders, and slugs (Hanners and Patton 1998).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION: Highly vulnerable to population decreases because of dependency on large tracts of unfragmented forest for nesting (Patton et al. 1998). Probably requires large (300-1,000 hectares [720-2,400 acres]) tracts of deciduous forest for successful reproduction and high productivity (Patton et al. 1998). Large contiguous areas with a minimum of nonforested edge produce the highest densities of breeding individuals and increase reproductive success by decreasing nest parasitism and predation (Hanners and Patton 1998). Also, has relatively narrow nonbreeding distribution, and nonbreeding populations are threatened because human alteration of tropical, broadleaved forests is expected (PIF 2002). Severe deterioration in future suitability of breeding conditions expected in Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region. Breeding Bird Survey data demonstrate a possible or moderate population decrease in the
Author: Paul D. Kittle